Commercial Bank: Present Structure, Types
Structure of Commercial Banks in India:
The commercial banks can be broadly classified under two heads:
1. Scheduled Banks:
Scheduled Banks refer to those banks which have been included in the Second Schedule of Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934.
In India, scheduled commercial banks are of three types:
(i) Public Sector Banks:
These banks are owned and controlled by the government. The main objective of these banks is to provide service to the society, not to make profits. State Bank of India, Bank of India, Punjab National Bank, Canada Bank and Corporation Bank are some examples of public sector banks.
Public sector banks are of two types:
(a) SBI and its subsidiaries;
(b) Other nationalized banks.
(ii) Private Sector Banks:
These banks are owned and controlled by private businessmen. Their main objective is to earn profits. ICICI Bank, HDFC Bank, IDBI Bank is some examples of private sector banks.
(iii) Foreign Banks:
These banks are owned and controlled by foreign promoters. Their number has grown rapidly since 1991, when the process of economic liberalization had started in India. Bank of America, American Express Bank, Standard Chartered Bank are examples of foreign banks.
2. Non-Scheduled Banks:
Non-Scheduled banks refer to those banks which are not included in the Second Schedule of Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934.
Commercial banks are of (3) Three Types:
(a) Public Sector Banks:
Refer to a type of commercial banks that are nationalized by the government of a country. In public sector banks, the major stake is held by the government. In India, public sector banks operate under the guidelines of Reserve Bank of India (RBI), which is the central bank. Some of the Indian public sector banks are State Bank of India (SBI), Corporation Bank, Bank of Baroda, Dena Bank, and Punjab National Bank.
(b) Private Sector Banks:
Refer to a kind of commercial banks in which major part of share capital is held by private businesses and individuals. These banks are registered as companies with limited liability. Some of the Indian private sector banks are Vysya Bank, Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India (ICICI) Bank, and Housing Development Finance Corporation (HDFC) Bank.
(c) Foreign Banks:
Refer to commercial banks that are headquartered in a foreign country, but operate branches in different countries. Some of the foreign banks operating in India are Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC), Citibank, American Express Bank, Standard & Chartered Bank, and Grindlay’s Bank. In India, since financial reforms of 1991, there is a rapid increase in the number of foreign banks. Commercial banks mark significant importance in the economic development of a country as well as serving the financial requirements of the general public.