Controlling is one of the managerial functions and it is an important element of the management process. After the planning, organizing, staffing and directing have been carried out, the final managerial function of controlling assures that the activities planned are being accomplished or not.
So the function of controlling helps to achieve the desired goals by planning. Management must, therefore, compare actual results with pre-determined standards and take corrective action of necessary.
Control can be defined as the process of analyzing whether actions are being taken as planned and taking corrective actions to make these to confirm to planning.
Principles of Controlling
The followings are the principles of controlling:
Controls must positively contribute to the achievement of group goals by promptly and accurately detecting deviations from plans with a view to making corrective action possible.
- Interdependence of Plans and Controls
The principles of interdependence states that more the plans are clear, complete and integrated, and the more that controls are designed to reflect such plans, the more effectively controls will serve the need of managers.
- Control Responsibility
According to this principle, the primary responsibility for the exercise of controls rests in the manager charged with the performance of the particular plans involved.
- Principal of Controls being in Conformity to Organization Pattern
Controls must be designed so as to reflect the character and structure of plans. If the organization is clear and responsibility for work done is well defined, control becomes more effective and it is simple to isolated persons responsible for deviations.
- Efficiency of Controls
Control techniques and approaches are effectively detect deviations from plans and make possible corrective actions with the minimum of unsought consequences.
- Future-oriented Controls
It stresses that controls should be forward looking. Effective controls should be aimed at preventing present and future deviations from plans.
- Individuality of Controls
Control should be designed to meet the individual requirements of managers in the organization. Although some control techniques and information can be utilized in the same form by various types of enterprises and managers as a general rule controls should be tailored to meet the specific requirements.
- Strategic Point Control
Effective and efficient control requires that attention to be given to those factors which are strategic to the appraisal of performance.
- The Exception Principle
The exception principles whereby exceptions to the standards are notified, should be adopted. Note must be taken of the varying nature of exceptions, as “small” exceptions in certain areas may be of greater significance than ‘larger’ exceptions elsewhere.
- Principal of Review
The control system should be reviewed periodically. The review exercise may take some or all the points emphasised in the above stated principles. Besides, flexibility and economical nature or controls, should not be lost sight of while reviewing controls.