CIRO Model

The CIRO model was developed by Warr, Bird and Rackham and published in 1970 in their book “Evaluation of Management Training”. CIRO stands for context, input, reaction and output. The key difference in CIRO and Kirkpatrick’s models is that CIRO focuses on measurements taken before and after the training has been carried out.

One criticism of this model is that it does not take into account behaviour. Some practitioners feel that it is, therefore, more suited to management focused training programs rather than those designed for people working at lower levels in the organization.

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  1. Context

This is about identifying and evaluating training needs based on collecting information about performance deficiencies and based on these, setting training objectives which may be at three levels:

  • The ultimate objective: The particular organizational deficiency that the training program will eliminate.
  • The intermediate objectives: The changes to the employees work behaviours necessary if the ultimate objective is to be achieved.
  • The immediate objectives: The new knowledge, skills or attitudes that employees need to acquire in order to change their behaviour and so achieve the intermediate objectives.
  1. Input

This is about analyzing the effectiveness of the training courses in terms of their design, planning, management and delivery. It also involves analyzing the organizational resources available and determining how these can be best used to achieve the desired objectives.

  1. Reaction

This is about analyzing the reactions of the delegates to the training in order to make improvements. This evaluation is obviously subjective so needs to be collected in as systematic and objective way as possible.

  1. Outcome

Outcomes are evaluated in terms of what actually happened as a result of training. Outcomes are measured at any or all of the following four levels, depending on the purpose of the evaluation and on the resources that are available.

  • The learner level
  • The workplace level
  • The team or department level
  • The business level

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