Human resource is the most important asset of an organization. Human resources planning are the important managerial function. It ensures the right type of people, in the right number, at the right time and place, who are trained and motivated to do the right kind of work at the right time, there is generally a shortage of suitable persons.
According to E.W. Vetter, human resource planning is “the process by which a management determines how an organization should make from its current manpower position to its desired manpower position.
Through planning a management strives to have the right number and the right kind of people at the right places, at the right time to do things which result in both the organization and the individual receiving the maximum long range benefit.”
Dale S. Beach has defined it as “a process of determining and assuring that the organization will have an adequate number of qualified persons available at the proper times, performing jobs which meet the needs of the enterprise and which provide satisfaction for the individuals involved.”
In the words of Leon C. Megginson, human resource planning is “an integration approach to performing the planning aspects of the personnel function in order to have a sufficient supply of adequately developed and motivated people to perform the duties and tasks required to meet organisational objectives and satisfy the individual’s needs and goals of organisational members.”
Objectives of Human Resource Planning
1. Well Defined Objectives
Enterprise’s objectives and goals in its strategic planning and operating planning may form the objectives of human resource planning. Human resource needs are planned on the basis of company’s goals. Besides, human resource planning has its own objectives like developing human resources, updating technical expertise, career planning of individual executives and people, ensuring better commitment of people and so on.
2. Determining Human Resource Reeds
Human resource plan must incorporate the human resource needs of the enterprise. The thinking will have to be done in advance so that the persons are available at a time when they are required. For this purpose, an enterprise will have to undertake recruiting, selecting and training process also.
3. Keeping Manpower Inventory
It includes the inventory of present manpower in the organization. The executive should know the persons who will be available to him for undertaking higher responsibilities in the near future.
4. Adjusting Demand and Supply
Manpower needs have to be planned well in advance as suitable persons are available in future. If sufficient persons will not be available in future then efforts should be .made to start recruitment process well in advance. The demand and supply of personnel should be planned in advance.
5. Creating Proper Work Environment
Besides estimating and employing personnel, human resource planning also ensures that working conditions are created. Employees should like to work in the organization and they should get proper job satisfaction.
An HR Planning process simply involves the following four broad steps:
- Current HR Supply: Assessment of the current human resource availability in the organization is the foremost step in HR Planning. It includes a comprehensive study of the human resource strength of the organization in terms of numbers, skills, talents, competencies, qualifications, experience, age, tenures, performance ratings, designations, grades, compensations, benefits, etc. At this stage, the consultants may conduct extensive interviews with the managers to understand the critical HR issues they face and workforce capabilities they consider basic or crucial for various business processes.
- Future HR Demand: Analysis of the future workforce requirements of the business is the second step in HR Planning. All the known HR variables like attrition, lay-offs, foreseeable vacancies, retirements, promotions, pre-set transfers, etc. are taken into consideration while determining future HR demand. Further, certain unknown workforce variables like competitive factors, resignations, abrupt transfers or dismissals are also included in the scope of analysis.
- Demand Forecast: Next step is to match the current supply with the future demand of HR, and create a demand forecast. Here, it is also essential to understand the business strategy and objectives in the long run so that the workforce demand forecast is such that it is aligned to the organizational goals.
- HR Sourcing Strategy and Implementation: After reviewing the gaps in the HR supply and demand, the HR Consulting Firm develops plans to meet these gaps as per the demand forecast created by them. This may include conducting communication programs with employees, relocation, talent acquisition, recruitment and outsourcing, talent management, training and coaching, and revision of policies. The plans are, then, implemented taking into confidence the mangers so as to make the process of execution smooth and efficient. Here, it is important to note that all the regulatory and legal compliances are being followed by the consultants to prevent any untoward situation coming from the employees.